Saturday, December 29, 2007


What Is It?

Osteoarthritis literally means "degenerative joint disease." It affects more than 16 million Americans and is the most common form of arthritis. After the age of 45 it occurs ten times more commonly in women than men. Onset of this disease is increasingly common with age, and symptoms usually creep up on people slowly.


The most common causes of osteoarthritis are injuries, joint overuse and aging. Scientists also suspect that inherited gene defects may be another factor, and they are currently investigating this link. Studies point to the conclusion that this disease tends to run in families, possibly through a recessive gene.


Osteoarthritis affects the protective material around joints called cartilage, which covers and cushions the ends of the bones. In a healthy person, cartilage is flexible and hardwearing. However, eventually cartilage frays, wears down, and may even disappear completely, leaving behind a joint consisting of bone meeting bone with no padding. Consequently, the other sections of the joint such as the tendons, ligaments and muscles, become weaker until the joint itself becomes deformed.


Currently, the only known methods of prevention are avoiding repetitive joint injury and weight control.


Pain, swelling and stiffness are the most common results of joint deterioration, and they often become worse with time. Morning stiffness and excessive pain in one joint are typical early warning signs. Symptoms may appear in the hands, knees, hips, back and neck. The affected joint's range of motion will also become increasingly limited.


Although Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that may last a lifetime, several approaches to treatment are effective.


It used to be thought that exercise causes 'wear and tear' on the body, especially in joints. Now, however, being inactive is considered detrimental to joint health. Experts now recognize the importance of exercise for strengthening joints, both before and after symptoms of arthritis appear. Swimming, walking, low-impact aerobics and range-of-motion exercises are beneficial to dealing with joint pain and stiffness.


Cortisone is used to reduce inflammation and improve joint mobility. The most commonly used corticosteroids are Prednisone, methylprednisone, Decadron and Aristocort. Occasionally, the hormone is injected into the joint to stop pain. However, the use of any corticosteriods should be discussed extensively with a doctor, as they do have side effects (depending on the dosage and length of time they are used.

Acetaminophen is commonly used for pain relief, although it is dangerous in doses higher than 4,000 mg daily and poses a risk for patients with liver disease.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used, although inflammation is less of a problem in this kind of arthritis. A new kind of NSAID called COX-2 inhibitors recently came onto the market with the promise of fewer gastrointestinal side effects. Please read our in-depth articles in the library for more information.

Hyaluronan and Viscosupplementation. Hyaluronan, a naturally occurring substance in synovial fluid reduces joint pain by enriching the natural properties of synovial fluid. Vicosupplementation is the name of the therapy in which hyaluronan is injected into the knee. Synvisc and Hyalagan are two brand names to look for, and are recommended for the treatment of OA in the knee after traditional therapies are unsuccessful.

Weight reduction

Being overweight is a definite risk factor for developing osteoarthritis. The increased load on joints may accelerate the breakdown of cartilage; for example, it is estimated that people with the highest body weight in the population have up to ten times the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis than those with the lowest weight. Weight issues are an important part of arthritis management. Successful strategies include calorie reduction, increased physical activity, and general adjustments in eating and exercise habits.

Heat and Ice

Warm baths, heat lamps and warm compresses can relieve pain. Heat also reduces stiffness and increases movement. Other people find relief in cold packs, especially for inflammation. In either case, remove the compress or ice after 20 minutes.

Topical Products

Topical products are sometimes used to provide temporary relief from arthritis pain. Capsaicin, a compound found in hot peppers, reduces pain when applied to the affected area three or four times a day. Other products, called counterirritants, use camphor, menthol or turpentine oil to mask the pain. Skin irritation may develop, but otherwise there are few side effects.


In severe cases, surgery can help to repair torn cartilage and remove loose bone fragments. There are several different types of procedures, from arthroplasty, where the entire damaged joint is replaced, to osteotomy, which removes damaged bone tissue.

Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is it?

Rheumatoid Arthritis affects one to two percent of the population. It appears to hit women the hardest, with an estimated 2.1 million female sufferers in the United States alone. Although it normally shows up between ages 20 and 40, rheumatoid arthritis can strike anytime.

This type of arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease potentially affecting the entire body and involving many different joints. When the body's immune system is not functioning correctly, healthy joint tissue comes under attack. Joint damage and inflammation of the joint linings cause pain, stiffness and swelling.


Early in the disease, people suffer from inflammation, pain, and stiffness. Symptoms often begin in the hands or feet, but can also impact elbows, shoulders, neck, knees and hips. Accompanying this can also be fever, poor appetite, fatigue and anemia and rheumatoid lumps, which form under the skin.


A specific cause has yet to be pinpointed, although researchers have identified a genetic marker that is probably influential in the start of the disease. The earlier a diagnosis is made the better, because arthritis can often be controlled with swift drug intervention.

In 1999, a study published in the Journal of Rheumatology found that smoking cigarettes or cigars raises the risk for rheumatoid arthritis by about 50 percent.


Medications are usually aimed at alleviating the symptoms. Aspirin is usually the first drug to try, since it is inexpensive and effective.

A class of drugs called NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are the next course of action. However, response to NSAIDs can vary, so experimentation is usually called for. In the long term they are known to cause side effects, particularly stomach upset and gastrointestinal bleeding. Fortunately, a new class of drug is now on the market, COX-2 inhibitors, which help pain reduction without the side effects of NSAIDS. The newer drugs are more expensive, but their dosage is lower than other medications.

More powerful anti-rheumatic drugs are used when the anti-inflammatory drugs fail to provide adequate help. Antimalarial compounds containing hydroxychloroquine sulfate have produced a good response in. Others, such as the corticosteroid prednisone can result in rapid symptomatic improvement until treatment is discontinued. Finding the right balance between dosage and relief is important when using steriods, as long term use carries many side effects.

Other treatment options

Exercise, periods of rest and physical therapy all contribute to coping with rheumatoid arthritis. Exercise is beneficial for keeping joints mobile, strengthening muscles around joints, and maintaining overall health and wellbeing. Although sufferers may not feel like exercising, just a few simple movements a day can make a difference in the severity of symptoms as well as improve mood and self-esteem.

Rest is vital to the recovery of inflammed joints to prevent further damage.


Splints are easily available in the local pharmacy and provide joint support and protection during flare-ups. They are most effective for hands and wrists and can be tailored to the individual. Other readily available devices help sufferers perform everyday chores, such as can openers, jar openers, door handles, and faucet turners.

Boxing Day Review

The Boxing day match between Australia and India was completely one sided after the first day show by the Indian Jumbo. The match clearly says that the intense with which the match was played was much lower by Indians compared to the Aussies.

Also the choice of having a partime opener in terms of Dravid was foolish, which has affected his batting too. Yuvaraj should have made to sit out and Sehwag must have been tried as an opener to Jaffer. Also Dinesh Karthick should have been given a chance as he has always done well in foreign soils.

The other thing is the choice of having two spinners. Since India has lots of partime spinners in terms of Sachin, Yuvaraj, India should have gone in for another seamer because the Aussies struggled to the seamers in the beginning.

The other concern for Indian team will be the form of Dhoni in the foreign soils. He has performed well only in the Sub-Continent and has a poor record in the soils like Australia.

The Indian Think Tank is now in a lot of trouble for going with the right combination of players for the second test. He should now go for a decision for the opening pairs. Apart from this Indian middle order batsmen should continue their good start into big scores and complement each other. Ganguly, the Dada is the only batsmen who is able to adapt to the condition and maintain himself cool against the Aussie attack and he too could not convert his 40's into huge scores.

Lets hope that these Indian Players as a team put up a Spirited fight for the remaining series to have a good series.

2007 - Kollywood Top 10 Movies

The Top 10 Movies for the year 2007 according to the amount received from the trade are :

1.Sivaji - The Boss




5.Imsai Arasan 23aam Pulikesi

6.Billa (Still Running to Packed Houses)


8.Chennai 600028 & Thiruvilayadal Aarambam (Each Grossed almost same amount)



Friday, December 28, 2007

Stop Smoking

If you are a Chain Smoker and if you want to stop smoking for improving your health condition but you are addicted to smoking and not able to leave it, then here is the product guide for all of you (Chain Smokers) to smoking.

Visit :

Payday Loan and Cash Avance are the two features available in the site for paying the money to buy the product.

One of the advice given in one of their Products is quoted for you to have an image of the product guide's usefulness.

""Avoid temptation. During the first few days of quitting, it is suggested that you change your routine to avoid situations where you would regularly smoke. For instance going to a bar within your first few days of quitting may not be the best idea.""

There are lot of such advices in that STOP SMOKING product guide.

Some of the Products that are Highly rated by the Customers are:

1. Nicocure

2. Avprin

3. Habitrol

4. NutraQuit

5. Nicotine Cure - Free Trial

For example:

The Nicocure Product Which is one of the Highly rated product in that website has some great features that promises everyone to go with that product to stop smoking.

*End your Smoking Habit

*Money-Back Guarantee

*Helps Reduce your desire to smoke

*Live a Healthy Lifestyle

In some of the other products, say, AVPRIN - This not only helps you stop smoking but also reduces your weight.

Some of their other products explores you about the symptoms of diseases due to smoking and also the repair works that needs to be taken once these symptoms are observed. This helps every chain smokers in a great deal.

There are also products that offer you free trial for a certain period to the users such that they can go ahead to buy the product if they are really intrested and if they can feel the change by using that product.

Hence for all Chain smokers visit,

and get smoke free person.

Prevention is Better then Cure

Online Backgammon

Its time to earn money for all Backgammon players. To have this done visit


First thing you need to do is download the application in the ".exe" format and run that application. Only then you can play the backgammon tournament. One should be careful that there are penalty of one point for every five minutes delay. But the biggest thing is that one can earn more money than they invested. Also that for the beginners, one should make sure that they understand what the game is all about. Hence they should read about the game and then go for playing. Enjoy the moneyfare with BACKGAMMON.

Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Medical assistant schools

I found a website that contains the details of various medical schools.

The website consists of the links of various Medical Schools around the world and the programmes that were run by various Medical Assistant Schools so that it is useful to all those who aim for pursuing a career in medical field. People can also get assisted with regard to the various programmes available,(i.e),if a person wants to know something about X-Ray Technician Training then their is a link for that which gives you a basic idea about what the program is all about and what is the advantage of that programme with respect to other programmes available in this field. It also tells which school provides the training in suchprogrammes and which one has the best features in running that programme.

Hence for those who wants to pursue a career in Medical field, visit the above link to get good assistance with regard to the Medical field.

Monday, December 24, 2007

Bheema Release on Jan 10

The much awaited movie of the year 2007 after BILLA (i.e) "BHEEMA" starring Vikram and Trisha will hit the screens throughout the world on January 10th 2008. This was a news that was conveyed by Vikram and Lingusamy to their fans and media in a function in Chennai. Not to forget that BHEEMA was slated for the 2007 Diwali Release. Unfortunately the film release was postponed for Various reasons. Now its time to cheer for all Vikram Fans to see their star in the big screen soon.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Dont Waste Time in ETR

Many people do a mistake in wasting time by clicking some ads to earn money through ETR (Earn To Read). The fact is that the organizers do not pay you the money. I too got a lot of mails saying that you will be paid $2000 per mail. Many of my friends were wasting time in this. but what happened finally was they did not even receive a single cent although the organizers have informed them their payout request have been approved and will be credited in their Paypal account within 30 to 90 days. it has become an year since their payout has been granted but they didnot receive their money. Hence it is advisable that You people dont waste time in this spam mails, instead you people can do a good job in this time. Also your system will be affected since these mails are not fee from virus. They contain a Hell a lot of virus in them. Be aware of this cheating.

Sunday, December 16, 2007

Are YOU heading for a building problem?

THOUSANDS of amateur developers are “heading for problems” by copying projects on reality television shows, an industry expert warned today.

Instead of doing jobs properly, they are being misled by TV shows which pretend making money from property is child’s play. But as thousands copy what they see on screen in the hope of making a quick buck, a growing number are setting themselves up for heartache, according to Peter Vinden, chairman of construction consultants The VindenPartnership.

“These shows make it look like making money out of developing property is a piece of cake, but it is anything but,” said Peter.

“So many people are watching these programmes and thinking, ‘I could do that’ when they can’t, that thousands are simply heading for problems.”

The success of property programmes has created an army of amateur developers keen to make money from renovating old houses.But with the property market across the UK currently static or declining, the margins for error are becoming ever smaller.

Meanwhile, record debt levels mean that many amateur developers, at or close to their borrowing limit, are unable to budget for complications or fund emergency repairs. As a result, it is even more important that they make the most of what advice is available as early as possible.

As a result, one of the services the Bolton/Nottingham-based firm can offer is a free project health check, run in conjunction with the Royal Bank ofScotland. Vinden’s team includes specialists in surveying, building, insurance and the law.

“We are seeing more and more people who think they can turn their hand to developing property, when they really don’t know what they are doing,”added Peter.

“That trend is a direct result of the number of property programmes there are on television making the whole process look very easy for even a complete amateur.

“We saw one case where a developer thought he was going to make £300,000 profit from building six new houses.

“His sales prices were very realistic but he had completely underestimated the problems and costs of building the houses in the first place. Our report went through the whole project, looking at everything from building costs to the best ways of going about the scheme, and concluded that he would most likely lose money on the scheme. He wasn’t very happy but it saved him a lot of money and heartache in the long run.”

Mr Vinden, 42, added that while some shows - such as Channel 4’s PropertyLadder, in which Sarah Beeny gives frank advice to often hapless developers– be have responsibly, other programmes do not always follow suit.

“Millions of people tune in each week to watch and a large number go away wanting a piece of the action,” he said.

“But while these programmes get great ratings, the people behind them don’t see the hundreds of people losing large sums of money through thinking that making cash out of property is easy. It is not.

“If these shows could do one thing, it should be to encourage developers to seek professional advice at the outset.”

Dave Jones, Director of Commercial Banking for RBS Bolton and Wigan, said:“We have already worked with The Vinden Partnership on a number of project health checks and the feedback from customers has been excellent.

“Vinden have a wealth of expertise and a well earned reputation for professionalism and integrity within the construction industry.”

Among the most common mistakes made by amateur developers are:• Developers underestimate the cost and time taken to do even straightforward jobs.• Not spotting which jobs can be done by the developer, and which need professional skills.• Not realising that, when borrowing money from institutions accredited by the council of mortgage lending, properties need to meet certain building regulations – making the finished property impossible to sell.• Determined to make a project work on low costs, amateur developers refuse to seek professional advice until it is too late.

Excercise To Relax Yourselves

The following exercise needs to be done in a couch or bed, the person has to rest on his back, keeping all his muscles in a relaxed position with out any tension in any part of the body. All exercises need to be done twice with very deep concentration. Each exercise can be done in half a minute, more emphasis need to be given to the relaxed state of the muscle than the tensed state. It will be beneficial to do the exercise with eyes closed so as to achieve maximum concentration. This exercise can be done at any time of the day.

Take deep breath and concentrate on your breathing for three minutes

1. Slowly clench your fist, clench it tighter and tighter and feel the maximum tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

2. Fold your arm towards your shoulder and feel the tension, press it harder and harder and feel the maximum tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

3. Stretch your arm downwards, stretch it as much as possible and feel the maximum tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

4. Raise your forehead and feel the tension in your forehead. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

5. Bring your forehead downwards and feel the tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

6. Close your eyes tighter and tighter and feel the maximum tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

7. Clench your jaws tighter and tighter and feel the maximum tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

8. Press your head on the bed and feel the tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

9. Turn your face right side and press it as hard as possible on the bed. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

10. Turn your face left side and press it as hard as possible on the bed. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

11. Raise your head and press it on your chest. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

12. Shrug your shoulders as much as possible and feel the tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

13. Slowly arch your spine - lift your chest and stomach keeping your waist on the bed. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

14. Take deep breath, hold your breath and feel the tension. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

15. Pull your stomach inside and feel the tension in your abdomen. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

16. Push your stomach outside and feel the tension in your abdomen. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

17. Press your heels on the bed and feel the tension in your legs. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

18. Press your toes forward and feel the tension in your calf muscle. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

19. Press your toes backward and feel the tension in your legs. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

20. Clench your fist and press your heels on the bed. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

21. Clench your fist, press your heels on the bed, pull your stomach inside, shrug your shoulders and hold your breath. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

22. Clench your fist, press your heels on the bed, pull your stomach inside hold your breath clench your jaws, close your eyes and press your head on the bed. Slowly release it and feel the relaxed state

The New Triple Alliance

Once, it was coal, steel and rail. Now, this is the front page story in today's Morning Star:

Prison Officers Association general secretary Brian Caton lent his support to the Police Federation, saying: “We’ve never altered our view that the actions of the government in 1918 were wrong,” in reference to the run-up to the 1919 strike ban.

“We support the right of the police to withdraw their labour, as those in Europe have, but there should never be the need for them to do so,” Mr Caton pointed out. “The Police Federation is absolutely fed up with this government.”

Mr Caton revealed that the POA, Police Federation and Fire Brigades Union would hold tripartite talks in early January to decide a unified response to government attacks on their members’ rights and jobs.

“The government’s so-called modernisation programme is of common interest to the Police Federation, POA and FBU,” he said.

“It is deskilling and cheapening the high standards of public service in this country.

“It says a lot about the new Labour experiment. From the top to the bottom of the Cabinet, they have forgotten the Labour principles of public services.

“If a triple alliance is what is needed, that is what we’ll have.”

And this is the editorial inside:

Trade unionists who have been at the receiving end of police violence on their picket lines may be indifferent or even hostile to Police Federation complaints of poor treatment by the government.

For those such as printworkers or miners who suffered particularly at the hands, horses and clubs of what were dubbed “Thatcher’s bootboys,” such hostility is understandable, but it is still wrong.

Anything that brings the experience of police officers closer to that of the organised labour movement is likely to lead to a mirroring of attitudes also.

And, as has been shown in the letters column of this paper, with contributions from a small number of former police officers, it is wrong to tar all coppers with a right-wing brush.

As with the army, many working-class youngsters sign up to the police for a variety of reasons, including relatively good starting pay, housing assistance and - don’t discount it - the belief that they are contributing to the safety and well-being of society.

Rank-and-file police officers are realising that, as far as Gordon “Labour means business” Brown is concerned, police, prison officers and firefighters are on a par with civil servants, teachers and nurses.

In other words, their salaries come out of the public purse and, therefore, they are prime targets for pay cuts and diminished living standards.

When Tory prime minister Margaret Thatcher was leading the neoliberal charge against the public sector and trade unionism, politicising the police force and using it to literally beat down all opposition to her policies, she saw the sense of keeping the police onside by safeguarding pay and conditions.

Mr Brown has no problem with handing over upwards of £25 billion of public money to bale out a bank that’s been brought to its knees by an avaricious and feckless management.

But, when it comes to working people’s pay and pensions - to say nothing of defence of Britain’s manufacturing capacity - his hands are clenched tight.

To condemn essential workers to what is effectively a 1.9 per cent rise - in reality, a pay cut - is either stupid or provocative.

Mr Brown clearly hopes that this government’s denial of effective trade union rights to its own employees is sufficient to win the day.

But police and prison officers can see that, elsewhere in the world, full trade union rights for the forces of law and order is not regarded as something out of the ordinary.

In South Africa, police and prison officers are organised in the same union POPCRU, just as they used to be in this country until 1919 when the government banned trade unionism and militarised the police.

And in France too, all the trade union federations, from the most class-confrontational to most collaborationist, have a police section.

Any development of police trade unionism is a positive return to civilian status and a rejection of militarisation.

The Fire Brigades Union and Prison Officers Association have extended the hand of friendship to the Police Federation.

The rest of the labour movement should do likewise.

The only way to defeat new Labour’s big business agenda is by mobilising all those who suffer under it to unite in support of peace and social justice.

Those who oppose New Labour's big business agenda equally and indivisibly out of moral and social conservatism, out of patriotism, and out of support for peace and for social justice, you know what you have to do.

Privacy and Security Law Blog: Is Canada Trying to Opt Out of the Patriot Act?

In response to concerns that the FBI can access sensitive Canadian data that the Canadian government provides to U.S. firms, a Canadian government proposal would allow Canadian government departments to cancel contracts with U.S. firms that give information about Canadians to the FBI. Draft guidelines say that the FBI can get access through U.S. firms or their affiliates to data located in Canada. Even if the Canadian government canceled a contract, though, that may not stop the U.S. government from obtaining the Canadian data. Such a cancellation could leave a firm with the choice of breaking U.S. or Canadian law, so unless Canadian law imposes severe penalties, a firm may decide it is less costly to comply with U.S. law.

Thursday, December 13, 2007

GMAT Verbal

Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT)

Verbal Section

This question presents a sentence, part of which or all of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of rephrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose
option A, else pick one of the others.

1. John and Tim went to the bank and he made a deposit.

A. he

B. they

C. it

D. their

E. you

2. Although the average Girl Scout joins the organization at age 14, they have
already been Brownies for several years.

A. they have already been Brownies

B. they were Brownies

C. she has already been a Brownie

D. she had already been a Brownie

E. she was in the Brownies

3. In 1980, the Netherlands agreed to limit fishing in certain Atlantic Ocean beds,
but in 1981, they terminated the agreement.

A. they terminated the agreement.

B. they decided to terminate the agreement.

C. it terminated the agreement.

D. it was terminated.

E. it decided the agreement was terminated.

4. While brokers, as a rule, are not permitted to know executive access codes, in
many instances they are widely known.

A. they are widely known

B. they are widely known to be

C. they are widely known by many

D. the codes are able to be widely known

E. the codes are widely known

5. Despite seeming tame and intelligent, the state troopers had no choice but to shoot
the loose Gorilla.

A. Despite seeming tame and intelligent

B. Despite a tame and intelligent appearance

C. Although appearing to be tame and intelligent

D. Although it seemed tame and intelligent

E. However tame and intelligent in appearance

6 . The number of workers have increased steadily each year.

A. have increased steadily

B. steadily have increased

C. have been increasing steadily

D. has increased steadily

E. has steadily been going through an increase

7. The commercial airliner flew too close to the military base, an act that the army
saw as a violation of its air space.

B. as if it was

C. to be

D. that it was

E. for

The questions in this group are based on the content of a passage. After reading
the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions
following the passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

8. For the past five years, US consumption of eggs has decreased. The National
Egg Council plans to reverse this trend by launching an advertising campaign
extolling the healthful benefits of eggs.
Which one of the following, if true, will provide the strongest support for the
National Egg Council’s plan?

A. Eggs are a good source of protein.

B. Many former egg eaters now make omelets using egg
C. Most people stopped eating eggs because they thought eggs

were unhealthy.

D. Eggs contain unhealthy levels of cholesterol.

E. Eggs substitute makers launched an extensive marketing
campaign six years ago.

9. In an effort to reduce the amount of fat and the number of calories that they
consume, many citizens of the United States are making significant changes in
their diets. For them staying in shape and looking fit now take precedence over
eating foods that are filling and that taste good. It is likely that if they maintain
these new priorities with consistent regard for other health issues, the length and
quality of their lives will increase significantly.
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument is based?

A. Eating foods that are filling and tastes good is inconsistent with
staying in shape and looking fit.

B. Controlling the quality of one’s life requires more than mere
dietary adjustments.

C. A combination of diet and exercise is necessary if one wishes to
stay in shape and look fit.

D. Many citizens of the United States have only recently discovered
the importance of diet to living a longer, healthier life.

E. Staying in shape and looking good are current goals for most
citizens of the United States.

10. Singing in the Rain Umbrella Corp. plans to institute a marketing campaign in
which it sells umbrellas at the exits of subway stations during rainy weather. The
umbrellas will be sold at a price that is slightly higher than normal. The company
thinks the sales of these higher – priced umbrellas will be greater than normal
sales of umbrellas, because the purchasers of these umbrellas will be forced to
buy them if they do not want to get wet.
The author assumes which of the following about the purchasers of the umbrellas
in predicting the sales of the umbrellas?

A. Customers who do not feel immediate pressure to purchase will
not do so.

B. Normally priced umbrellas are not profitable for singing in the
Rain Umbrellas Corp.

C. Very few people buy Singing in the Rain’s normally priced

D. Singing in the Rain Umbrellas Corp. will have to stop selling
normally priced umbrellas when it starts selling higher priced

E. Most potential customers of Singing in the Rain’s higher priced
umbrellas will not have acquired an umbrella previously.

11. A leading cement manufacture has been having problems processing manufacturing
and delivery records since it expanded its operations. To solve this problem it plans to
install a new platform on its central computing system which will run its tracking program
five times faster than the current system does.
Which one of the following castes the most serious doubt on the manufacture’s

A. Not all computer platforms can make the company’s tracking programs
run more quickly

B. The cost of the new computer platform will require the cement
manufacture to raise prices for its products.

C. The cement company’s computer system does not have the capability to
run the new platform and cannot be updated.

D. The company has been increasing the sales of cement by 1.5 percent a
month for the past 18 months.

E. A completely new computer system could make the program run 6 times
faster than it does currently.

12. Critics insist that government regulation of business has made it more difficult for
American businesses to operate profitably and has destroyed their ability to compete
with foreign producers of consumer goods. This argument is not compelling.
Government regulation of business was never as active in this nation as it was between
the years 1975 and 1985, and in those years the average net worth of American family
increased more than it had in any previous decade.
The author’s argument would be most seriously weakened if it were true that

A. 80 percent of all businesses started during the decade 1975-1985 lost
money in their first year.

B. More businesses declared bankruptcy during the period 1975-1985 than
in any previous decade.

C. During the decade 1975-1985, America imported more consumer goods
than it exported.

D. The increase in net worth of average American families during the years
1975-1985 was largely due to an increase in the value of residential

E. The average interest rate charged on business and home mortgage loans
was higher during the decade 1975-1985 than it had been in any previous

13. A recession is not caused by any economic force other than nation wide loss of
confidence. If the economy is perceived as being unstable, banks are
conservative in lending money, investors take fewer risks and hence economic
growth is slowed.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above.

A. A recession is getting effected by the response of the Federal Reserve’s
setting of interest rates.

B. A recession can be brought on by the failure of a major bank that had been
loaning money.

C. Slowed economic growth is not the only result of a recession.

D. When investors begin taking greater risks it is enough to stimulate economic

E. It is a fallacy to assume that economic growth is necessary for economic

14. In an effort to increase revenues, Sky Air recently partnered with several airlines
to create a joint frequent-flier program. In the new program, miles earned on all
partner airlines can be combined for reward tickets valid on any airline in the
partnership. Sky Air’s CEO cites a recent increase in the number of passengers
on all the partner airlines as evidence that the new frequent-flier program is
having the desired effect. Industry analysts doubt the CEO’s claim.
Which of the following, if true, best supports the analysts’ positions?

A. Air travel tends to be seasonal, with more passengers traveling during
warmer months and holiday periods.

B. The recent increase in passenger rates for all the partner airlines was
predicted by the lowest rates of air travel in the last decade.

C. Many travelers achieved reward tickets more quickly under the new
frequent-flier program and redeemed them recently for free travel.

D. Travelers redeemed frequent-flier rewards on Sky Air’s partners more
frequently than on Sky Air.

E. A study of frequent-flier programs showed that they generally result in
increased long-term airline revenues.

This question presents a sentence, part of which or all of which is underlined.
Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of rephrasing the underlined part.
The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the
original is best, choose option A, else pick one of the others

15. Neither my mother nor my father, both of whom are English professors, agree
with my contention that James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is overrated.

A. Both of whom are English professors, agree with my contention that
James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is overrated.

B. Both of whom are English professors, agrees with my contention that
James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is overrated.

C. Both of whom are English professors, agree with my contention that
Ulysses, a novel by James Joyce is overrated.

D. Each of whom is an English professor, agree with my contention that
James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is overrated.

E. English professors the both of them agrees with my contention that
James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is overrated.

16. A number of military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm has
encountered a series of unexplainable symptoms that were attributed to Gulf War

A. has encountered a series of unexplainable symptoms that were attributed

B. has unexplainably encountered a series of symptoms that have been
attributed as

C. have encountered a series of unexplained symptoms that have been
attributed as

D. have encountered a series of unexplainable symptoms that have been
attributed to

E. have encountered unexplainably a series of symptoms that were
attributed as

17. Although Smith once championed the charity, he changed his mind after journalist
linked its origin to a corrupt individual.

A. once championed the charity

B had once championed the charity

C has once championed the charity

D was a champion of the charity

E championed the charity at one time

18. A swarm of desert honeybees, a phenomenon seen by few of the select scientists
and entomologists, occur when a portion of the colony leave the current nest to find a
new home.

A. few of the select scientists and entomologists, occur when a portion of the
colony leave

B. a select few scientists and entomologists, only occurs when portions of the
colony leaves

C very few selected scientists and entomologists, occur when portions of the
colony leave

D. only very few selected scientists and entomologists, occurs when a portion of
the colony leaves

E. only a select few scientists and entomologists, occurs when a portion of the
colony leaves

19. During the State of the Union address every February the president announced the
amount of the new programs the administration planned to create and the amounts of
money it invested in each one.

A. announced the amount of the new programs the administration planned to
create and the amounts of money it invested in each one

B. announced the amount of the new programs the administration had created
and the amount of money that was invested in each one

C. announces the number of the new programs the administration plans to create
and the amount of money to be invested in each one

D. announces the amount of the new programs created by the administration and
the amount of money invested in them

E. had announced the administration’s plans for a number of new programs and
the amounts of money that were to be invested in them

20.Of the numerous decisions facing the Supreme Court this term, the question of an
individual’s right to die is for certain the more perplexing.

A. the question of an individual’s right to die is for certain the more perplexing

B. it seems certain that the more perplexing is the question of an individual’s right
to die

C. the question of an individual’s right to die is certainly the most perplexing

D. it seems certain the question of an individual’s right to die is the most

E. the question of an individual’s right to die is certainly the more perplexing

21. In response to losing a significant part of its market share to a competitor, the soft
drink company has cut costs by withholding executive bonuses, changed their
advertising agency, and have redesigned the company logo.

A. changed their advertising agency, and have

B. changing their advertising agency, as well as

C. has changed its advertising agency, and

D. and changed its advertising agency, and has

E. changed its advertising agency, and

22. Now even directors of off- Broadway productions, desperate for actors who are
talented, charismatic, and aspiring more to a solid career in the theater than to the
lucrative rewards and stardom proffered by movie moguls and studios, are turning to
independent casting directors for guidance in assembling their casts.

A. are talented, charismatic, and aspiring

B. are talented, who have charisma, and who are aspiring

C. have talent and are charismatic and aspire

D. are talented and have charisma, and whose aspirations are

E. are talented and charismatic, and who aspire

23. The Supreme Court can effectively rule on a case in two ways, either by
deciding to hear the case and handling down its judgment, or rather to simplify
refuse to hear the case at all.

A. either by deciding to hear the case and handing down its judgment, or
rather to simplify refuse

B. either by deciding to hear the case and handing down its judgment, or
by simplify refusing

C. by either deciding to hear the case and hand down its judgment or to
simplify refuse

D. to hear a case and to hand down its judgment, or to refuse simply

E. either by deciding to hear the case and hand down its judgment, or the
simple refuse

24. The establishment of land trusts in New England has been praised not
because of its restricting overdevelopment but because it allows the inheritance by
future generations of the property.

A. not because of its restricting overdevelopment but because it allows the
inheritance by future generations of

B. because of not only is restricting overdevelopment and also allows the
inheritance by future generations of

C. because it does not only restrict overdevelopment, it also allows future
generations for inheriting

D. because of not only the restrictions on over development but also
because future generations can inherit

E. Not only because it restricts overdevelopment but also because it
allows future generations to inherit

25. Some students of literary criticism consider the theories of Blaine to be a huge
advance in modern critical thinking and question the need to study the discounted
theories of Rauthe and Wilson.

A. to be a huge advance in modern critical thinking and question

B. as a huge advance in modern critical thinking and question

C. as being a huge advance in modern critical thinking and questioned

D. a huge advance in modern critical thinking and question

E. are a huge advance in modern critical thinking and questioned

26. One of the possible results of the further depletion of the ozone in the atmosphere
would be a sharp increase in the demand for sunscreens. Many of the ingredients in
sunscreens are natural, and the demand for these products will require strict
conservation laws. This will represent the victory for those who desire greater protection
for the environment.
Which one of the following best states the conclusion in the passage above?

A. Industries that produce ozone-depleting chemicals should be encouraged to
continue doing so.

B. Regulation of ozone-depleting chemicals should be handled on a federal level.

C. The natural ingredients in sunscreen products should be replaced by synthetic

D. The effects of ozone depletion on the environment are not categorically negative.

E. The few positive effects of ozone depletion are far outweighed by the myriad
negative effects.

27. The American division of the Acme running shoe company should begin
marketing running shoes with double-thick soles. Acme’s Swedish division is
selling a large number of these items, and is enjoying its most profitable quarter
Which of the following is an assumption made by the author of the argument

A. Acme’s Brazilian division is also selling a large number of
running shoes with double-thick soles.

B. Swedes and Americans have similar tastes in music.

C. Acme is the only running shoe company that manufacturers
double-thick soles.

D. The running shoe market in America tends to follow the same
trends as does the market in Sweden.

E. Acme has experienced financial troubles in the last three

28. Currently about 70 percent of all urban households recycle some portion of their
garbage, 25 percent more than did ten years ago. This increase can be
attributed , in part , to the fact that a larger portion of the population is now under
the age of 47.
Of the following, which can be most properly inferred from the passage

A. Of those who currently recycle, at least 70 percent recycle less than 25
percent of what is potentially recyclable.

B. Younger people are generally more conscientious about waste disposal
than are older people.

C. People under the age of 47 are more likely to recycle than are their older

D. The overall population has risen by at least 25 percent in the past ten

E. People currently over the age of 47 recycled more often ten years ago.

29. State colleges have lower tuitions than do private colleges because many of
their operating costs are covered by federal and state funds.
Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made

A. Private colleges have higher operating costs than do state

B. Many more people matriculate at state colleges than do at
private colleges.

C. Tuition fees and operating costs are directly related.

D. the cost of attending state college is always more than the cost

attending private college.

E. If private colleges are to lower their tuitions , they must receive
outside support.

30. Many people feel that hard work deserves a reward. However, this is not true.
Hard work should be its own reward, because such work intrinsically gives the
worker satisfaction when it is performed satisfactorily.
The author of the argument draws his or her conclusion by

A. Claiming than what is commonly believed is false for that very

B. Pointing out the inconsistencies in a counterargument.

C. Challenging the definition of the word “reward” as something
extrinsic to a task.

D. Repeating a premise that was previously stated.

E. Allowing a counterclaim to weaken his or her argument.

31 . If we reduce the salaries of our employees, then profits will increase by 35 percent.
Because we must increase our profits, it is clear that employee salaries must be
Which of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the argument

A. If I eat less food, I will lose weight. Since I started skipping breakfast, I
have lost ten pounds.

B. If I work four more hours each week, I will earn enough money to afford
a new hobby. Because I would like a new hobby, I will collect coins.

C. If god does not exist, then there is no basis for morality. Because some
actions are morally wrong, God must exist.

D. If there is an economic recession, then salaries will be reduced.
Because salaries are not decreasing, there is not an economic

E. If there were more commercials, the number of television watchers
would decline. Because the number of television watchers should be
reduced, the number of commercials should be increased.

This question presents a sentence, part of which or all of which is underlined.
Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of rephrasing the underlined part.
The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think
the original is best, choose option A, else pick one of the others

32. As we traveled the back roads of Arkansas, each of us were equipped with a
canteen, a knife, and a compass.

A. Each of us were equipped

B. Equipping ourselves

C. Every one of were equipped

D. Each of us was equipped

E. Equipped as we are

33. The best labor negotiators are the ones that have the ability of settling even the
most irreconcilable stalemates.

A. The ones that have the ability of settling even

B. Them that are able even to settle

C. Those who have the ability to settle even

D. Those that are able to even settle

E. The ones who have the ability of even settling

34. Many small companies expand their client bases not so much by aggressive
marketing as by networking and word of mouth.

A. So much by aggressive marketing as by

B. As much with marketing aggressively as with

C. Much by aggressive marketing that instead by

D. So aggressively with marketing but with

E. In marketing aggressively but rather in

CTS Aptitude Paper -1

CTS Questions 28th jan 2006:

1.In a club there are certain no. of males and females. If 15 females are absent then no. of males will be twice that of females. If 45 males are absent then female strength will be 5 times that of males. Find no. of males actually present.
Ans : Males 80,Females 175

2.Three men A, B, C plays Cards. If one loses the game he have to give Rs.3. If he wins the game he will gain Rs.6. If A has won 3 Games, B loses Rs.3, C wins Rs.12.What is the total no. of games played?
Ans :

3.A can swim & cross 50m(the length of swimming pool) in 2 min. B can swim & cross 50m in 2min 15sec. Every time when they meet a bell gong is struck. For 2000m how many bell sounds might be produced?
Ans : 37

4.When I was married 10 years ago my wife is the 6th member of the family. Today my father died and a baby born to me. The average age of my family during my marriage is same as today. What is the age of Father when he died?
Ans : 60

5.There are 9 balls of equal size and same weight(they look similar) except 1. How may weighs required to find the dissimilar ball using a weighing balance?
Ans : 3

6.Product of Prime no. between 1 to 20?
Ans 9699690

7.Find out the total numbers between 1 to 999 that are neither divisible by 8 nor by 12?
Ans :833

8.Find out the distinct numbers that can be formed by 2, 3, 7, 6(don’t now exactly) that should be divided by 4?
Ans :8

9.Two trains at speed 60 km/hr comes in the opposite direction. At a particular time the distance between the two trains is 18km. A shuttle flies between the trains at the speed of 80 km/hr. At the time the two trains crashes what is the distance traveled by shuttle?
Ans:12 km

10.There are n urns and m balls. If we put 3 balls in each urn 3 balls will be excess. If we put 4 balls in each urn 1 urn will be excess. Find no. of Urns (or) Balls?

11.Find the area not occupied by circles:
Given length =y breadth =x
Answer: 3x2(1-pie/4)

12.A man gets x/y of Rs.10 and y/x of Rs.10. He returns Rs.20. The Answer choices are
a) He may not lose Ans He never losses
b) He may lose
c) He always loses
d) Cannot be Determined

13.Three men A,B,C can complete a work separately in some specified days(may be8,7,6).
If they do the work together by alternate days. Then how many days need to complete the work?
Ans 7 1/8

14)Four Members A,B,C,D are playing a game .A person losing a game should double the amount of others .B,C,D are losing in order after three games .The amount after 3 games are A&B having 40,D is having 16&C 80.
Each questions carry one mark:
a) who started with small amount of money?

b)who started with greatest amount of money?

c)what amount did B have?
Hint: I solved and found the answers to be A->5,B->93

17)There are some houses in a street back to back .And they that house behind 10 was 23.How many houses in the street?

18)There are 1997 doors in a auditorium and as many as people as the no of doors open enter the auditorium .A door was closed and as many as people as no of doors open leave the auditorium . the process was repeated till the no of doors is equal to1.find the total no of peoples enter the auditorium?
Ans :1996

19)A batsman average was last innings he took 23 runs then his average became much run he should take to make his average 18?
Ans 39

20)Find the number WXYZ divisible by 36?
i)let the digits be5,4,3,6 -not in that order
ii)sum of last two digits is 9
iii) sum of middle two digits is 7
->if one is sufficient then ans asA || if two is sufficient then ans as B||if all are necessary then ans as C|| if nothing is needed then ans as D

21)X and Y live in a North-South parallel street. X travels 10 km towards North to reach the east-west street . Y travels 6 km towards south to reach the east -west street . X travels now 4km towards east and y travels 8km towards west and they met each other. What is the distance between x and y?
Ans : 20km

22)The houses are numbered 1,2,3,… and reach the end of the street and backtracks toward s the starting point. The house numbered 10 is opposite to 23. there are even no of houses. Find the total no of houses.
Ans :32

23)A seller has a set of apples out of which he sells one half of it and half an apple to his first customer.then he sells half of the remaining apples and a half apple to his second customer.Then he sells half of the remaining apple and ½ apple to his third customer and so on.This repeats upto 7th customer and no more apples are remaining . Find the total no of apples he had.
Ans :127 (2 pow n) -1

24) A hollow cube of size 5cm is taken , with the thickness of 1cm . it is made of smaller cubes of size 1cm . if the outer surface of the cube is painted how many faces of the smaller cubes remain unpainted?
Ans 438

25)if a 36 cm thread is used to wrap a book , lengthwise twice and breadthwise once, what is the size of the book?
Ans 7,4 & 8,2 Area 6

26)the various degrees of the vertices are marked in the dig. Find y
Ans =54

27)if 4 circles of equal radius are drawn with vertices of a square as the centre , the side of the square being 7 cm, find the area of the circles outside the square? Ans 3 pie r pow 2 [461.58]

28)A bus has 40 seats and the passengers agree to share the total bus fare among themselves equally. If the total fair is 80.67 , find the total no of the seats unoccupied.
Ans :37

29) A 4 digit no may consist of the digits 6,2,7,5 where none of the nos are repeated.Find the possible no of combinations divisible by 36?
Ans :0

30) if u r traveling from Mumbai to banglore and return back .To find the speed of the car which of the following r needed.
a)the distance between them.
b)time taken
c)avg speed towards Mumbai and the avg speed towards banglore.
1)a only. 2) Ans a and b 3) a,b,c 4)b only 5)Ans c only ( ans not in order)

32) A secret can be told only 2 persons in 5 minutes .the same person tells to 2 more persons and so on . How long will take to tell it to 768 persons ?
a)47.5 min b)50 min c) 500 min d)….
Ans: 47.5 min ......35min

33) Three birds cross a point in a same st. line and of that 2 fly in opposite directions. If a triangle is formed with the position of the birds what kind of the triangle will be formed?
a)If same speed isosceles b)right angle c)equilateral d)right angle and isosceles.
Ans : a

34)when the angle a, b, c, d are given find x.

35) One question is given for explaining the working of cornea (in eyes) & the window
Ans: drawing analogy

36) m a)m-n < x-y
b)m+n < x+y
c)&d) Similar options using all 4 variables
Ans : x-m

37)Four circles are drawn from the corners of a square of area 49 cm2 . Find the area of 4 circles outside the square
(they didn’t mention that circles have radius=1/2 side of a square)
Ans: intermediate

38)In a pond ecosystem,large fishes and small fishes will be there.If we want to remove small amount of pollutants,small fishes are to be employed.In a food-chain food passes through a number of mouths and en route the mouth of the superfeeder-the eagle.The size of the ecosystem is determined by its population.But this has been proved false.
What can you infer from above?
(4 choices)

39)In Bangalore,during income tax deduction for a single person,the percentage increased by 3% and for middle house-holders,it decreased by 3%.What can you infer?

40)In China,Mao-Tse -Tung was responsible for organizing its people and taking China into success path.It evolved into a great economic power by improved industrial and economical statistics.China prospered in those years,but_________________
Which of the following best completes the sentence?(4 choices)

41)A ridge formed over Pacific Ocean was because of the intersection of two volcanoes.But in history it was written that it was not due to those volcanoes.It proves a contradictory to form the view that history will be proved wrong in the future.

42)In a poultry form because of cloning,a large breed of hens were produced.This increased the production but the maintenance was very difficult because of the large number.This does not mean that cloning is a disaster in the scientific world but it is a tool which in some ways is constructive but in other ways ,it is destructive.Inference?

High Frequency Words 2

Word Definition

abate subsideor moderate

aberrant abnormalor deviant

abeyance suspendedaction

abscond departsecretly and hide

abstemious sparingin eating and drinking; temperate

admonish warn;reprove

adulterate makeimpure by adding inferior or tainted substances

aesthetic artistic;dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful

aggregate gather;accumulate

alacrity cheerfulpromptness; eagerness

alleviate relieve

amalgamate combine;unite in one body

ambiguous unclearor doubtful in meaning

ambivalence the stateof having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes

ameliorate improve

anachronism somethingor someone misplaced in time

analogous comparable

anarchy absenceof governing body; state of disorder

anomalous abnormal;irregular

antipathy aversion;dislike

apathy lack ofcaring; indifference

appease pacify orsoothe; relieve

apprise inform

approbation approval

appropriate v.acquire; take possession of for one’s own use

arduous hard;strenuous

artless withoutguile; open and honest

ascetic practicingself-denial; austere

assiduous diligent

assuage v. easeor lessen (pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe (anger)

attenuate makethinner

audacious daring;bold

austere forbiddinglystern; severely simple and unornamented

autonomous self-governing;independent

aver assertconfidently or declare; as used in law, state formally as

a fact

banal hackneyed;commonplace; trite; lacking originality

belie contradict;give a false impression

beneficen0t kindly;doing good

bolster support;reinforce

bombastic pompous;using inflated language

boorish rude;insensitive

burgeon growforth; send out buds

burnish makeshiny by rubbing; polish

buttress; prop up

capricious unpredictable;fickle

castigation punishment;severe criticism

catalyst agentthat increases the pace of a chemical action

caustic burning;sarcastically biting chicanery trickery;deception

coagulate thicken;congeal; clot

coda concludingsection of a musical or literary composition; summarizes

or concludes

cogent convincing

commensurate adj.corresponding in extent, degree, etc.; proportionate

compendium brief,comprehensive summary

complaisant trying toplease; overly polite; obliging

compliant yielding;conforming to requirements

conciliatory reconciling;soothing

condone overlook;forgive; give tacit approval; excuse

confound confuse;puzzle

connoisseur personcompetent to act as a judge of art; a lover of art

contention claim;thesis

contentious quarrelsome

contrite penitent- Her contrite tears did not influence the judge when he

imposed sentence

conundrum riddle;difficult problem

converge approach;tend to meet; come together

convoluted coiledaround; involved; intricate

craven cowardly

daunt intimidate;frighten

decorum propriety;orderliness and good taste in manners

default failureto act

deference courteousregard for another’s wishes

delineate portray;depict; sketch

denigrate blacken

deride ridicule;make fun of

derivative unoriginal;obtained from another source

desiccate dry up

desultory aimless;haphazard; digressing at random

deterrent somethingthat discourages; hindrance

diatribe n. bitterscolding; invective

dichotomy split;branching into two parts (especially contradictory ones)

diffidence shyness

diffuse adj.wordy, rambling, spread out (like a gas)

digression wanderingaway from the subject

dirge lamentwith music

disabuse correct afalse impression; undeceive

discerning mentallyquick and observant; having insight

discordant notharmonious; conflicting

discredit defame;destroy confidence in; disbelieve

discrepancy lack ofconsistency; difference

discrete adj.separate; unconnected; consisting of distinct parts

disingenuous lackinggenuine candor; insincere

disinterested unprejudiced

disjointed lackingcoherence; separated at the joints

dismiss eliminatefrom consideration; reject

disparage belittle

disparate adj.basically different; unrelated

dissemble v.disguise; pretend

disseminate distribute;spread; scatter (like seeds)

dissolution disintegration;looseness in morals

dissonance discord;opposite of harmony

distend expand;swell out

distill purify;refine; concentrate

diverge vary; goin different directions from the same point

divest strip;deprive

document providewritten evidence

dogmatic opinionated;arbitrary; doctrinal

dormant sleeping;lethargic; latent

dupe someoneeasily fooled

ebullient showingexcitement; overflowing with enthusiasm

eclectic selective;composed of elements drawn from disparate sources

efficacy power toproduce desired effect

effrontery impudence;shameless boldness; sheer nerve; presumptuousness

elegy poem orsong expressing lamentation

elicit draw outby discussion

embellish adorn;ornament; enhance, as a story

empirical based onexperience

emulate imitate;rival

endemic prevailingamong a specific group of people or in a specific area or


enervate weaken

engender cause;produce

enhance increase;improve

ephemeral short-lived;fleeting

equanimity calmnessof temperament; composure

equivocate lie;mislead; attempt to conceal the truth

erudite learned;scholarly

esoteric hard tounderstand; known only to the chosen few

eulogy expressionof praise, often on the occasion of someone’s death

euphemism mild expressionin place of an unpleasant one

exacerbate worsen;embitter

exculpate clearfrom blame

exigency urgentsituation; pressing needs or demands; state of requiring

immediate attention

extrapolation projection;conjecture

facetious joking (ofteninappropriately); humorous

facilitate helpbring about; make less difficult

fallacious false;misleading

fatuous brainless;inane; foolish, yet smug

fawning trying toplease by behaving obsequiously, flattering, or cringing

felicitous apt;suitably expressed; well chosen

fervor glowingardor; intensity of feeling

flag droop;grow feeble

fledgling inexperienced

flout reject;mock; show contempt for

foment stir up;instigate

forestall preventby taking action in advance

frugality thrift;economy

gainsay deny

futile useless;hopeless; ineffectual

garrulous loquacious;talkative; wordy

goad urge on

gouge overcharge

grandiloquent pompous;bombastic; using high-sounding language

gregarious sociable

guileless withoutdeceit

gullible easilydeceived

harangue long,passionate, and vehement speech

homogeneous of thesame kind

hyperbole exaggeration;overstatement

iconoclastic attackingcherished traditions

idolatry worshipof idols; excessive admiration

immutable unchangeable

impair injure;hurt

impassive withoutfeeling; imperturbable; stoical

impede hinder;block

impermeable impervious;not permitting passage through its substance

imperturbable calm;placid

impervious impenetrable;incapable of being damaged or distressed

implacable incapableof being pacified

implicit understoodbut not stated

implode burstinward

inadvertently unintentionally;by oversight; carelessly

inchoate adj.recently begun; rudimentary; elementary

incongruity lack ofharmony; absurdity

inconsequential insignificant;unimportant

incorporate introducesomething into a larger whole; combine; unite

indeterminate uncertain;not clearly fixed; indefinite

indigence poverty

indolent lazy

inert inactive;lacking power to move

ingenuous naive andtrusting; young; unsophisticated

inherent firmlyestablished by nature or habit

innocuous harmless

insensible unconscious;unresponsive

insinuate hint;imply; creep in

insipid lackingin flavor; dull

insularity narrow-mindedness;isolation

intractable unruly;stubborn; unyielding

intransigence n.refusal of any compromise; stubbornness

inundate overwhelm;flood; submerge

inured adj.accustomed; hardened

invective n. abuse

irascible irritable;easily angered

irresolute uncertainhow to act; weak

itinerary plan of atrip

laconic brief andto the point

lassitude languor;weariness

latent potentialbut undeveloped; dormant; hidden

laud v. praise

lethargic drowsy;dull

levee stoneembankment to prevent flooding

levity lack ofseriousness or steadiness; frivolity

log record ofa voyage or flight; record of day-to-day activities

loquacious talkative

lucid easilyunderstood; clear; intelligible

luminous shining;issuing light

magnanimity generosity

malingerer one whofeigns illness to escape duty

malleable capableof being shaped by pounding; impressionable

maverick rebel;nonconformist

mendacious lying;habitually dishonest

metamorphosis change ofform

meticulous excessivelycareful; painstaking; scrupulous

misanthrope one whohates mankind

mitigate appease;moderate

mollify soothe

morose ill-humored;sullen; melancholy

mundane worldlyas opposed to spiritual; everyday

negate cancelout; nullify; deny

neophyte recentconvert; beginner

obdurate adj.stubborn

obsequious slavishlyattentive; servile; sycophantic

obviate makeunnecessary; get rid of

occlude shut;close

officious meddlesome;excessively pushy in offering one’s services

onerous burdensome

opprobrium infamy;vilification

oscillate vibrate;waver

ostentatious showy;pretentious; trying to attract attention

paragon model ofperfection

partisan one-sided;prejudiced; committed to a party

pathological pertainingto disease

paucity scarcity

pedantic showingoff learning; bookish

penchant stronginclination; liking

penury severepoverty; stinginess

perennial somethinglong-lasting

perfidious treacherous;disloyal

perfunctory superficial;not thorough; lacking interest, care, or enthusiasm

permeable penetrable;porous; allowing liquids or gas to pass through

pervasive spreadthroughout

phlegmatic calm; noteasily disturbed

piety devoutness;reverence for God

placate pacify;conciliate

plasticity abilityto be molded

platitude n. triteremark; commonplace statement

plethora excess;overabundance

plummet fallsharply

porous full ofpores; like a sieve

pragmatic practical(as opposed to idealistic); concerned with the practical

worth or impact ofsomething

preamble introductorystatement

precarious uncertain;risky

precipitate adj.rash, premature, hasty, sudden

precursor forerunner

presumptuous arrogant;taking liberties

prevaricate lie

pristine characteristicof earlier times; primitive; unspoiled

probity uprightness;incorruptibility

problematic doubtful;unsettled; questionable; perplexing

prodigal wasteful;reckless with money

profound deep; notsuperficial; complete

prohibitive tending to prevent the purchase or use of something; inclined to

prevent or forbid

proliferate growrapidly; spread; multiply

propensity naturalinclination

propitiate appease

propriety fitness;correct conduct

proscribe ostracize;banish; outlaw

rarefied made lessdense (of a gas)

recalcitrant obstinatelystubborn; determined to resist authority; unruly

recant disclaimor disavow; retract a previous statement; openly confess


recluse hermit;loner

recondite abstruse;profound; secret

refractory stubborn;unmanageable

refute disprove

relegate banish toan inferior position; delegate; assign

reproach expressdisapproval or disappointment

reprobate personhardened in sin; devoid of a sense of decency

repudiate disown;disavow

rescind cancel

resolution determination

resolve determination;firmness of purpose

reticent reserved;uncommunicative; inclined to silence

reverent respectful;worshipful

sage personcelebrated for wisdom

salubrious healthful

sanction approve;ratify

saturate soakthoroughly

savor enjoy;have a distinctive flavor, smell, or quality

secrete hide awayor cache; produce and release a substance into an organism

shard fragment,generally of pottery

skeptic doubter;person who suspends judgment until having examined evidence

supporting apoint of view

solicitous worried;concerned

soporific sleep-causing;marked by sleepiness

specious seeminglyreasonable but incorrect; misleading (often intentionally)

spectrum coloredband produced when a beam of light passes through a prism

sporadic occurringirregularly

stigma token ofdisgrace; brand

stint v. bethrifty; set limits

stipulate makeexpress conditions; specify

stolid dull;impassive

striated markedwith parallel bands; grooved

strut pompouswalk

strut supportingbar

subpoena writsummoning a witness to appear

subside settledown; descend; grow quiet

substantiate establishby evidence; verify; support

supersede cause tobe set aside; replace; make obsolete

supposition hypothesis;surmise

tacit understood;not put into words

tangential peripheral;only slightly connected; digressing

tenuous thin;rare; slim

tirade extendedscolding; denunciation; harangue

torpor lethargy;sluggishness; dormancy

tortuous winding;full of curves

tractable docile;easily managed

transgression violationof a law; sin

truculence aggressiveness;ferocity

vacillate waver;fluctuate

venerate revere

veracious truthful

verbose wordy

viable practicalor workable

viscous sticky,gluey

vituperative adj.abusive; scolding

volatile changeable;explosive; evaporation rapidly

warranted justified;authorized

wary verycautious

welter turmoil;bewildering jumble

whimsical capricious;fanciful

zealot fanatic;person who shows excessive zeal

The Victim

my world was dark

yet i was safe

in my mothers womb i lay

i felt her warmth

i lived in her

from the beginning of my day

a foetus i was ,not yet a child

yet in my mind i knew

some day i would see the world

i would be a baby new

the world i'd see

and i would grow

slowly into a man

and later on when time would come

a family i would plan

alas!for me

i felt a chill

when suddenly my parents planned to kill me

they wanted to get rid of me

as children they did not want

"oh no!"i shouted

"i want to live

i want to be a child

i want to see ur lovely world

i'll be meek and mild!"

no one heard my cry of pain

when instruments tore at me

and in my mothers womb i was slain

now i'll never be a child

nor the world i'll see........

Kargil Tears

Unselfishly,you left your fathers and mothers,

You left behind your sisters and your brothers,

Leaving your children and wife,

You put on hold your dreams and your lives.

On Himalayan soil you found yourself planted,

To fight those who took our goodwill for granted,

Without your sacrifice our freedom would be lost,

But you carried onward,no matter what the cost.

I stood and watched as a mother cried,

When she heard that her son had died;

I watched a father hold back his tears,

His son had lived only a scant twenty-one years.

A little girl didn't understand where her brother had passed on,

But she knew that he would never again play with her on the lawn,

In the tears that now streams down my upturned face,

As the flag waves above us, in glory and in grace

Freedom was the gift that thy unselfishly gave,

Pain and death was the price that they ultimately paid.

Everyday,I give my utmost admiration

To those who had fought to defend our nation.

A Tribute to those who lost life in Kargil

25 Questions to be asked within Yourself

What do you do when you lose your heart to someone you know will never be yours?

Why do you fall for someone who can never be your own?

Why are suicidal tendencies of the heart so hard to explain?

Why do you take the road to agony when you could go on living your life the way you always have?

Why does it have to be the one who should never be the one?

Is love all about expecting the other to reciprocate?

Does that always work?

How does the mind function?

What do you do when your head and heart pull you in different directions?

How does destiny function? Is life ever beautiful?

Why do questions go unanswered? Where do the answers lie?

Are miracles for real?

Do dreams ever come true?

Can the fragments of a shattered mirror be put together again?

Fairytales only belong in books, right?

Is there ever a ‘happily ever after’ in real life?

How do you differentiate between illusion and reality?

Is there really a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow?

Do wishes on stars ever come true?

Is life just a farce?

Or can it ever be beautiful?

ICE - In Case of Emergency

We all carry our mobile phones with names & numbers stored in its memory but nobody, other than ourselves, knows which of these numbers belong to our closest family or friends.

If we were to be involved in an accident or were taken ill, the people attending us would have our mobile phone but wouldn't know who to call. Yes, there are hundreds of numbers stored but which one is the contact person in case of an emergency? Hence this "ICE" (In Case of Emergency) Campaign

The concept of "ICE" is catching on quickly. It is a method of contact during emergency situations. As cell phones are carried by the majority of the population, all you need to do is store the number of a contact person or persons who should be contacted during emergency under the name "ICE" ( In Case Of Emergency).

BBC News | News Front Page | UK Edition